Facade Basics

Facade Basics

“Important Parts of Building Exteriors: Curtain Walls, Mullions, and More”

Facade happens to be the outermost layer of a building envelope and it helps to protect the building against environmental elements such as wind, rain, and sunlight.

It is possible for facades to be made from different materials such as metal, stone, or concrete.

It has the power to influence the overall appearance of the building to a great extent.

Apart from this, facades often comprise features such as doors, windows, and architectural elements contributing to the character and style of the building.

Here, I will talk about the fundamental elements of a building facade.

1. Curtain wall system

It resembles a large glass wall on a building.

Instead of holding the building, it acts as a fancy jacket for the structure.

It comprises plenty of metal and glass frames such as steel and aluminium.

Let us look at its features.


•          It safeguards us from weather – Façade helps to keep wind, rain, and other elements of weather outside such that it is possible for you to remain warm and dry inside.

•          Appears nice – Helps to make the buildings appear modern and pretty with their cool designs and shiny glass.

•          Safe and strong – Being extremely strong, it will maintain the safety of the building. The façade is not going to break easily.

•          Helps to save energy – It helps to save energy by keeping heat within the building during the cold winter months and vice versa during summer.

2. Mullion

These are actually lines that are running up and down on a window. In most cases, these are manufactured from steel or aluminum.

Mullion will likewise provide structural support while maintaining the stability of the curtain wall.

It is possible to design them in such a manner that they will be able to hold glass panels safely.

Moreover, they can also be made in different types of sizes and shapes so that they are able to match the design of the building.

3. Transom

These are actually horizontal members collecting between mullions.

They are known to create a grid-like pattern within the curtain wall.

They are like lines running side to side on a particular window.

Structural support is provided by transoms to hold the curtain wall in the proper position.

They might likewise have a functional or decorative role since they carry the weight of various elements in the facade including glass.

4. Spandrel panel

These are actually areas of the curtain wall consisting of floor slabs, structural columns, as well as shear walls.

On most occasions, they will conceal those parts of the building that we would not like to see, such as big walls as well as columns.


•          Smooth appearance – The Spandrel panel helps to make the outside of the building appear nice and smooth.

•          Different materials – It is possible to make them from various things such as special panels or glass.

•          Useful for design – Spandrel panels are used by architects to make the building appear organized and pretty.

5. Spider glazing

It is a method where glass will be attached to the external frame of a building without the use of plenty of visible supports.

It provides the glass with an appearance that it is hanging in the air providing the building with a stylish and contemporary appearance.


•          Holds the glass – It resembles the web of a spider holding the glass in position at the front of the building.

•          No visible frames – Compared to regular windows having big frames, these are absent in the case of spider glazing. Therefore, it’ll be possible to see more portions of the building via the glass.

•          Stylish and modern – Spider glazing will help to make the building appear modern and cool. We often use it in offices or fancy buildings.

•          Plenty of light – It is possible for plenty of light to come inside the building due to the absence of big frames. This will be fantastic for the individuals staying inside the building.

Facade Basics

Various types of Spider Systems in facade for curtain walls

•          Point-fixed Spider – This particular type makes use of bolts or small metal points to hold the glass in position at some particular points, typically at the corners of the glass. It helps to create a minimalist and sleek appearance.

•          Fin Spider – These appear to be long and thin metal arms gripping the glass’s edge. We usually use them for providing stability and supporting large glass panels.

•          Cable Spider – These are used to hold the glass by making use of steel cables. One can also adjust them to fit various shapes and angles which helps to make them versatile for various types of architectural designs.

•          Rod Spider – These are used to hold the glass with the help of metal rods. We usually use them for tall buildings or locations where additional support is required by the glass.

Different types of Spider Fittings

•          Single-arm spider fittings or one-way spider – It comes with only one arm that extends from a central point.

•          Two-arm spider fittings or two-way spider – It comes with a couple of arms that extend from the central point in reverse directions.

•          Three-arm spider fittings or three-way spider –       It consists of as many as 3 arms that extend from a central point.

•          Four-arm spider fittings or four-way spider – It comprises 4 arms that extend from the central point at right angles to one another.

6. Skylight

•          Natural light – Lots of natural light is provided by skylights which helps to minimize your dependence on artificial lighting, as well as promote a more productive and healthier atmosphere.

•          Energy efficiency – It is possible for skylights to minimize your energy bills by maximizing daylight. Moreover, it’ll be possible to design them with energy-efficient glazing to reduce the loss of heat.

•          Ventilation – Certain skylights will be operable, enabling the circulation of fresh air throughout your space which will be particularly great for kitchens.

•          Aesthetic appeal – Skylights can be considered to be a spectacular architectural feature that will help improve the visual appeal of any room.

Types of skylights

•          Fixed skylights – These happen to be stationary and will be appropriate for bringing in light constantly. These are likewise the most cost-effective options.

•          Ventilating skylights – It is possible to open them to allow fresh air inside. These are also appropriate for enhancing the quality of the indoor air.

•          Tubular skylights – Being smaller in size, these are appropriate for tight areas such as closets or hallways. They have the ability to capture and reflect sunlight into your residence.

•          Custom skylights – In case you have unique preferences for design, it is possible to customize custom skylights so that they are able to fit your vision.

7. ACP Cladding

By the term ACP, we actually mean aluminum composite panel.

It happens to be a building material, which we typically use for exterior facades.

It consists of 2 thin sheets of aluminum which are bonded to a core material usually made of mineral-filled fire-resistant material or polyethylene.

ACP Cladding is known to provide buildings with a modern and sleek appearance.

Moreover, it is durable, weather-resistant, as well as lightweight.

It is a well-known choice for safeguarding the structure of the buildings and enhancing their visual appeal as well because of its ability and versatility to come in different colors and finishes.

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